Fast and formidable

Developing hypersonics: missiles that travel at Mach 5

Here's how you face the global threats of the future: with a new type of missile so fast it could travel from New York to Los Angeles in 39 minutes flat.

Under a $63 million contract with the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Raytheon Technologies is continuing development of highly maneuverable missiles that can travel at speeds in excess of Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound.

Traditional ballistic missiles already travel at hypersonic speeds. Built to carry nuclear and conventional warheads, they can reach outer space in the course of their flights, but they can't maneuver. The latest class of hypersonic missiles would be smaller, guided and designed to carry conventional explosives for time-sensitive, rapid response in theater operations.

Launched from the ground, aircraft, surface ships or submarines, hypersonic missiles could strike time-critical targets at long range much more quickly than today's conventional weapons, and would be very difficult to intercept.

"Hypersonic weapons can be more survivable because of the extreme speed and high altitude. They would be hard to stop," said J.R. Smith, director of Advanced Land Warfare Systems at Raytheon Missiles & Defense, a business of Raytheon Technologies.

At the company's facilities in Tucson, Arizona, engineers are working to overcome the challenges posed by the combination of speed and the extreme environmental conditions in which the missiles must operate. 

Because the missile heats up as it accelerates through the atmosphere, its sensitive inner electronics must be protected from blazing temperatures without adding extra weight, which can affect speed and guidance. Raytheon Technologies is using advanced materials to build heat shields that cocoon and shield the electronics inside the missile.

It's also challenging to control the missile's guidance systems at high speeds. Raytheon Technologies is relying on decades of expertise in advanced guided weapon systems to solve the problem. There are two approaches to solving the hypersonic challenge, known as scramjet and boost glide. 

The air-breathing scramjet relies on high speed for its power. As it accelerates, more air and fuel are pushed into the engine, allowing it to accelerate to hypersonic speeds.

For a tactical-range boost glide weapon to achieve hypersonic speeds, "a rocket accelerates its payload to high speeds. The payload then separates from the rocket and glides unpowered to its destination," according to the DARPA website.

Hypersonics won't replace today's weapons, but they will complement the many sub- and supersonic missiles already in the U.S. military's inventory.

The hypersonic missiles are being developed under multiple U.S. government contracts, and with an investment from Raytheon Technologies itself.